Definitions J - Q
Jitter: Small, rapid variations in a waveform due to mechanical
Joule: A unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current
of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second.
Scale: The absolute temperature scale in the CGS system. Kelvin is equal
to degrees Celsius plus 273.15.
Kilogram: One thousand grams.
Kinetic Energy: Energy due to motion.
Level: Perpendicular to the force of gravity.
LIMS (Laboratory Information Management
System): A system that manages
operations of a testing laboratory.
Linearity: The degree to which performance or response approaches the
condition of being linear.
Linear Meter: The deflection of the pointer is proportional to the quantity
Load Cell: A type of force transducer designed primarily for the measurement
of load or weight.
Loading Effects : An error of measurement resulting in a change of the system under
test caused by insertion of the test instrument.
Lumen: Unit of luminous flux.
Magnetic Deflection: Method of bending electrons in a CRT by means of the magnetic
field produced by coils placed outside the tube.
Management Review: Formal evaluation by top management of the status and adequacy of
the quality system in relation to quality policy and objectives.
Mass: Measure of the quantity of matter that a body
Mass Density: Mass per unit volume.
Mass Number: The number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus of an
Mass Unit: A unit of measurement for mass.
Mcleod Gage: A primary instrument for the measurement of pressure in a vacuum
Megohm: 1,000,000 ohms of resistivity.
Measurand: A particular quantity subject to measurement.
Measurement: The act or process of measuring.
Standards: A material measure, measuring instrument, reference material,
or system intended to define, conserve, or reproduce a unit or one or more values of a quantity in order
to transmit them to other measuring instruments by comparison.
Uncertainty: The estimated amount by which the measured quantity may depart
from the true value.
Measuring Equipment: All of the measuring instruments, measurement standards,
reference materials, auxiliary apparatus, and instructions that are necessary to carry out a measurement.
This includes measuring equipment used in the course of that used in calibration.
Meter: The basic unit of length adopted under the Systeme International
d’Unites (approximately 1.094 yards)
Metrology: The science of measurement.
MEV: The abbreviation for a million electron volts.
MHO: A unit of conductance.
Micro: Equivalence of one millionth.
Micron: A metric unit of length equal to one millionth of a
Milli: Equivalence of one thousandth.
Minute: 1/60th of a degree.
MKS System: The meter-kilogram-second system.
Model for Quality
Assurance: Standardized or selected set of quality system requirements
Moment Arm : The length of a torque wrench from the center of pivot to the
point where force is applied.
Momentum: The product of the mass of a body and its velocity.
Institute of Science and Technology: An independent agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce charged
with the improvement and maintenance of standards.
Neon: An inert element which is a gas at room temperature.
Neutron: An elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a
Neutrino: An elementary particle with zero charge and zero mass.
Newton: A unit of force equal to the force that imparts an acceleration
of 1 m/sec/sec to a mass of 1 kilogram.
Newtonian Fluid: A fluid whose absolute viscosity is the same for all values of
Nominal Value: This is normally the value indicated by the
Nonconformity: Nonfulfillment of a specified requirement.
Nonlinear: Pertaining to a response which is not directly or inversely
proportional to a given variable.
Switch(NC): A switch in which the contracts are closed without any external
force acting upon it.
Switch(NO): A switch in which contracts are open when no external forces
act upon the switch.
Null Method: Any method of measurement in which the reading is taken at
Objective Evidence: Information that can be proved true, based on facts obtained
through observation, measurement, tests or other means.
OHM : A unit of electrical resistance equal to the resistance between
two points on a conductor when a potential difference of one volt between them produces a current of one
OHMmeter: A instrument for measuring resistance.
Optical Pyrometer: An instrument designed to estimate the temperature of glowing
Optical Tooling: The geometric method of optically establishing a precise line
and/or reference plane.
Organization: Company, corporation, firm, enterprise, or institution or part,
thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own functions and
Structure: Responsibilities, authorities, and relationships, arranges in a
pattern, through which an organization performs its functions.
Out of Phase: Having waveforms that are of the same frequency but not passing
through corresponding values at the same instants.
Out of Round: The high and low spots in a true circle.
Overshoot: The initial transient response to an unidirectional change in
input which exceeds the steady stat response.
Packing Fraction: The difference between the atomic weight in mass units and the
mass number of an element divided by the mass number and multiplied by 10,000.
Parallax: The apparent displacement of an object as seen from two different
points that is not on a line with the object.
Transmission: Transmission of data bits over different lines, as opposed to
Peak to Peak
Amplitude: The amplitude of an alternating quantity measured from positive
to negative peak.
pH: A indication of the acidity or alkalinity of a
PID Control: Control in which the control signal is a linear combination of
the error signal, its integral, and its derivative.
Pointer: The needle-shaped rod that moves over the scale of a meter or
Potential: The amount of voltage or change between a point and a zero
Difference: The difference in potential between any two points in a
Potential Energy: Energy due to position.
Pontentiometer: A measuring instrument for measuring direct current electromotive
Measurement: Comparing the unknown voltage with a known voltage from a
Precision: The closeness of agreement between randomly selected individual
measurements or test results.
Pressure: Force exerted per unit area.
Preventive Action: Action taken to eliminate the causes of a potential nonconformity
defect or other undesirable situation in order to prevent recurrence.
Primary Standard: A unit established by some authority or developed through
practical application of a formula.
Probability: A measure of how likely it is that some event will
Control: Control in which the amount of corrective action is
proportional to the amount of error.
Psychrometer: A instrument for measuring relative humidity.
Pyrometer: A device for measuring high temperatures.
Process: Process of demonstrating whether an entity is capable of
fulfilling specified requirements.
Qualified: Status given to an entity when capability of fulfilling specified
requirements has been demonstrated.
Quality: The totality of features and characteristics of a product or
service that bears on its ability to satisfy given needs.
Quality Assurance: All those planned or systematic action necessary to provide
adequate confidence that adequate or service will satisfy given needs.
Quality Audit: A systematic and independent examination to determine whether
quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are
implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.
Observation: Statement of fact during a quality audit and substantiated by
Quality Control: The operational techniques and the activities that sustain a
quality of product or service that will satisfy given needs; also, the use of such techniques and
Quality Evaluation: Systematic examination of the extent to which an entity is
capable of fulfilling specified requirements.
Quality Losses: Losses caused by not realizing the potential of resources in
processes and activities.
Quality Management: The totality of functions involved in the determination and
achievement of quality.
Quality Manual: Document stating the quality policy and describing the quality
system of an organization. See Davis Calibration Quality Manual.
Quality Plan: Document setting out the specific quality practices, resources,
and sequence of activities relevant to a particular product, project, or contract.
Quality Policy: Overall intentions and direction of an organization with regard
to quality, as formally expressed by top management.
costs: Those costs incurred in ensuring satisfactory quality, as well
as the losses incurred when satisfactory quality is not achieved.
Surveillance: Continued monitoring and verification of the status of an
entity and analysis of records to ensure that specification requirements are being fulfilled.
Quality System: Organizational structure procedures, processes and resources
needed to implement quality management.